Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd Edition, 1970, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 [abstract 170 words] how fundamental changes in thinking come about.
new and unsuspected phenomena are repeatedly uncovered by scientific
research. As more and more anomalies to the existing paradigm
are found, a crises situation develops. Attempts are made to fix
the old paradigm. If the fix is unsatisfactory and an alternative
paradigm is proposed that includes both the old and new facts, a
scientific revolution occurs.
The resulting paradigm shift causes scientists to see the world they study in a new way. Old instruments are used in new ways, new experiments are conceived and unexpected avenues of investigation open.